Uranyl(VI) complexes with pentadentate N3O2-donating Schiff base ligands having various substituents at the ortho (R1) and/or para (R2) positions on phenolate moieties, R1,R2–Mesaldien2–, were synthesized and thoroughly characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Molecular structures of UO2(R1,R2–Mesaldien) are more or less affected by the electron-donating or -withdrawing nature of the substituents. The redox behavior of all UO2(R1,R2–Mesaldien) complexes was investigated to understand how substituents introduced onto the ligand affect the redox behavior of these uranyl(VI) complexes. As a result, the redox potentials of UO2(R1,R2–Mesaldien) in dimethyl sulfoxide increased from −1.590 to −1.213 V with an increase in the electron-withdrawing nature of the substituents at the R1 and R2 positions. The spectroelectrochemical measurements and theoretical calculation [density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations] revealed that the center U6+ of each UO2(R1,R2–Mesaldien) complex undergoes one-electron reduction to afford the corresponding uranyl(V) complex, [UO2(R1,R2–Mesaldien)]−, regardless of the difference in the substituents. Consequently, the redox active center of uranyl(VI) complexes seems not to be governed by the redox potentials but to be determined by whether the LUMO is centered on a U 5f orbital or on one π* orbital of a surrounding ligand.