The shape of nanomaterials affects their colloidal properties, cellular uptake, and fate in the environment. The microbial origin and microenvironment can play a role in altering the shape of the nanomaterial. However, such studies have never been conducted. Here, we demonstrate that the selenium nanomaterials produced by Escherichia coli K-12 are stable and remain as BioSe-Nanospheres under thermophilic conditions, while those produced by anaerobic granular sludge transform to BioSe-Nanorods, due to a lower quantity of proteins coating these nanoparticles, which has been verified by proteomics analysis as well as using chemically synthesized selenium nanomaterials. Furthermore, the presence of Bacillus safensis JG-B5T transform the purified BioSe-Nanospheres produced by E. coli K-12 to BioSe-Nanorods, though they are not transformed in the absence of B. safensis JG-B5T. This is due to the production of peptidases by B. safensis JG-B5T that cleaves the protein coating the BioSe-Nanospheres produced by E. coli K-12, leading to their transformation to trigonal BioSe-Nanorods, which is the thermodynamically more stable state. These findings suggest that the fate of selenium and probably other redox-active elements released from the biological wastewater treatment units needs to be reevaluated and improved by including microbial criteria for better accuracy.